Electrical Safety

In Safety And Health 203 views
Requirements and Specifications
Hazard Identification Risk Assessment and Control
A survey must be undertaken to identify all restricted areas containing the following equipment:
  • electrical panels and enclosures
  • control centres, substations and equipment• emergency shut-off mechanisms
Surveys
Surveys need to be completed to assist in the overall management of electrical installations and equipment on site. The completed surveys will:
  • provide the detail required to develop a register of restricted areas and
  • identify where overload protection devices and earth leakage devices are installed or required and if electrical energy sources need to have restricted access. When planning to perform the survey
  • ensure that competent personnel are used in order to identify the electrical equipment and installations
  • identify and communicate the boundaries of responsibility for where the survey will be carried out
  • develop a suitable survey form to capture the relevant information for each survey
Restricted Areas
Hazardous energy sources have the potential to cause an injury or damage, therefore access needs to be restricted to only personnel who are aware of the hazards and are authorised. These areas will need to be clearly marked and locked to prevent unauthorised access.
Table 1: Examples of restricted areas
For an example of a restricted area survey form (electrical) see appendix A.
A survey must be carried out on all electrical installations to identify where :
  • overload protection devices are installed or required
  • earth leakage devices are installed or required (All 220V and 380V general purpose outlets must be protected by approved earth leakage device rated at 30mA tripping current)
  • restricted access is required to hazardous energy sources
Electrical Installations
To prevent injury or harm occurring when working on or near electrical installations suitable protection devices such as overload protection must be installed. The protection device selected will need to be suitable to the type and use of the electrical installation. To ensure all electrical installations on site are assessed, a register of electrical installations will need to be developed. An electrical installation is defined as:
Electrical equipment
a) within buildings, structures, land, vehicles and vessels; and
b) used, or intended to be used, by a person/customer supplied from—
(i) an electricity distributor’s system; or
(ii) private generating plant; or
(iii) other generating systems.
NOTE: An electrical installation usually commences at the point of supply and finishes at a point (in wiring) but does not include portable or stationary electrical equipment connected by plug and socketoutlet. A competent person will need to make the decision on what type of protection devices are installed on each electrical installation. The following table provides an explanation of the protection device type’s available and includes examples of where they are installed.
Table 2: Electrical Protection Devices
For an example of an electrical installation survey form see appendix B
Any risk identified as having a potential to cause a fatal incident shall be controlled before electrical installations or equipment is commissioned or authorised for use. All hazards and risk associated with electrical installations or equipment will need to be identified and, evaluated in order to assess the risk of injury from each hazard. All risks will need to be controlled to ensure a safe work environment is provided.
The commissioning process will need to review the risk assessment and controls to ensure that any potential to cause a fatal incident has been identified and suitably controlled prior to equipment being authorised for use.
All documentation and records relating to surveys, risk assessments, and electrical drawings must be retained until the electrical installation or equipment is decommissioned. Electrical documentation and records must be maintained until decommissioning of the related installation or equipment takes place. Working documents such as surveys and electrical drawings will need to be kept in an easily accessible location for work purposes, normally the engineering department. All work entailing exposure to electrical hazards shall be identified and documented.
Electrical hazards
When performing working that directly interacts or is in the vicinity of electricity, the work must be completed in accordance with the relevant safe work procedure. If a safe work procedure does not exist then a job safety analysis will need to be completed. Examples of electrical hazards as outlined in table three must be systematically identified, evaluated and controlled to prevent personnel being electrocuted or exposed to electrical fires.
Table 3: Examples of electrical hazards found in the workplace
Table 4 provides examples of tasks that involve working with electricity; the table also demonstrates that a variety of occupations need to be aware of electrical hazards that are present in their work environment.
Table 4: Examples of tasks and associated electrical hazards
Working near overhead powerlines
Most people do not realize that overhead powerlines are usually not insulated. More than half of all electrocutions are caused by direct worker contact with energized powerlines. Most electrocutions involving overhead powerlines are caused by failure to maintain proper work distances. Shocks and electrocutions occur where physical barriers are not in place to prevent contact with the wires. When
• dump trucks,
• cranes,
• work platforms, or other
• conductive materials (such as pipes, ladders, or vegetation)
contact overhead wires, the equipment operator or other workers can be killed.
If you do not maintain required clearance distances from powerlines, you can be electrocuted and killed. (Refer to Kep/menn extract below for distances) Never store materials and equipment under or near overhead powerlines.
Selection, Training, Competency and Authorisation
The selection and placement evaluation process must ensure personnel:
  • meet defined criteria for medical fitness and health (e.g. colour-blindness assessment)
  • hold relevant qualifications for occupations required to design, procure, inspect and maintain electrical installations and equipment
Selection and Placement
As part of the selection process medical certification of fitness must be obtained prior to an applicant being considered suitable for the job. If intending to be an electrician, personnel need to be able to pass a colour blindness assessment which will be carried out by a medical practicioner. Personnel will need to possess certain qualifications to be allowed to design, procure, inspect or maintain electrical installations or equipment. Table 5 provides examples of qualifications required to perform certain duties.
Table 5: Qualifications required for performing electrical work
The training and competency assessment system shall ensure:
  • competency standards for persons who install, maintain, or inspect electrical installations and equipment including the construction and decommissioning of that electrical equipment
  • the provision of training and competency assessments for the above personnel
  • regular re-assessment of competencies including re-certification which shall be no less than every two years, and providing retraining where required
  • all occupations exposed to electrical hazards receive electrical hazard training at the commencement of their employment and thereafter on an annual basis
  • the recording of all training undertaken and results of competency assessments requiring certification (electricians)

Training and Competency

To ensure work carried out on electrical installations and equipment is performed safely, personnel need to be
appropriately trained. In some cases the requirement to construct or decommission electrical equipment will require a person to have a formal trade or qualification (e.g. an electrician).
The general site induction shall include the electrical safety awareness training. The specific inductions for divisions or departments must discuss specific electrical hazards for that work area that employees maybe exposed to. Table 6 provides a summary of training courses provided for personnel who are exposed to electrical hazards within the work place and are required to install, maintain or inspect electrical installations and equipment
Table 6: Electrical Safety Training
Training records must be maintained. Refresher training and re-evaluation of competencies is required to ensure knowledge and skills are maintained. It is the KPC department manager’s responsibility to ensure all staff are appropriately trained for their job, and that they attend required refreshers to maintain their KIMPER status. The selection, training, competency and authorisation of personnel relating to electrical equipment shall consider:
Kepmen555-Decree of Mines Article 181 / 193 / 204 / 205
Refer to appendix D for Kepmen articles
Communication and Awareness
Changes to electrical installation and equipment must be documented and communicated to personnel whom may be affected. Changes may include;
  • operating specifications
  • line diagrams or schematics
  • maintenance or inspection requirements
  • emergency control equipment or emergency procedures
Change Management
Changes to electrical installations and equipment must follow a standard process, such as the change management process. The following points will need to be considered once the change has been authorised.
Table 7: Change Considerations
Awareness information and/or instruction must be provided on a regular basis to personnel who may be required to interface, either directly or indirectly with electrical installations and equipment, and must include topics such as:
  • electrical hazards present in the workplace
  • safety precautions
  • restricted areas

Awareness Information and Instruction

Information or instruction must be provided to personnel on a regular basis, the purpose of this is to:
  • review areas that maybe identified as high risk (this maybe site wide or specific to your work team),
  • maintain focus and awareness of employees who are exposed to electrical hazards
  • When developing awareness information determine the following:
  • topic: what information needs to be discussed
  • target audience: determine who the awareness information is intended; in this situation identify employees who are directly and indirectly required to interface with electrical installations and equipment
  • awareness method: should be developed so that employees regardless of language or literacy levels can be provided with information
  • frequency of exposure: the level of interaction with electricity
Refer to appendix D for Kepmen articles
Design, Purchase, Fabrication, Installation and Commissioning
The purchase and commissioning system shall ensure:
  • specifications for electrical installation and equipment commissioning
  • pre commissioning of electrical installations & equipment prior to use at KPC
  • periodic inspections of electrical installations & equipment for the purpose of maintaining commissioning status
  • formal inspection checklists developed and applied to the above requirements
  • maintaining a register of all electrical installations and equipment
  • recording of all pre commissioning and inspection results

Purchase and Commissioning System

Purchasing specifications are established to standardise equipment purchases and ensure specifications are complied with. Electrical installations and equipment must meet team commissioning requirements which complies, PUIL and AS/NZS 3000. The process for commissioning must be authorised by the manager of the project. Fixed plant areas are authorised by the Superintendent Electrical Engineering. Pre commissioning is performed by an electrical contractor who has been approved by the team electrical inspector. A precommissioning checklist which reflects PUIL and AS/NZS 3000 requirements will need to be prepared for the specific electrical installation or equipment that is to be commissioned.
To maintain commissioning status inspections checklists should be developed for equipment such as fixed plant, portable equipment and hand tools. The register of all electrical installations and equipment will need to record the commissioning status of the installations or equipment.
Changes made to Existing Installations
Extensions, upgrades, replacements and modifications are examples of changes made to existing installations. It is important that a formal electrical inspection is carried by an electrical inspector prior to use to ensure the installation meets team safety standards. The inspection should be maintained on file for future reference.
Removal of redundant equipment also constitutes a change, and is covered in a later requirement â€˜removing redundant, decommissioned, unfit or unsafe for purpose electrical equipment’. Design or purchase specifications must be in place for all electrical installations and equipment including consideration of:
  • safety requirements
  • electrical panels, enclosures, control centres, substations and equipment must be appropriately guarded, labelled, and made inaccessible (except for emergency shut off mechanisms) to unauthorised personnel.
  • electrical safety devices such as earth leakage and overload protection must be installed on all final distribution circuits and the settings established by certified personnel.
  • line diagrams must be developed which show: system fault calculations; equipment details; electrical protection discrimination curves; and cable ratings
  • legal requirements
  • Kepmen555-Decree of Mines Article 182 , 183, 184, 185, 186, 187, 188
  • Kepmen555-Decree of Mines Article 192, 194, 195, 198 (2)/(5), 199
  • Kepmen555-Decree of Mines Article 200, 203
  • Decree of Indonesian Mining and Energy regulations.
  • other requirements
  • PUIL Standards
  • AS3000
Design and Purchasing Specifications
Design and purchasing specifications developed for electrical installations and equipment used on the owner site must consider AS/NZS 3000, PUIL, safety and legal requirements. Purchasing specifications are established to standardise equipment purchases. Design criteria ensure the following:
  • Protection of persons and property from harmful effects
  • Correct functioning of the electrical installation for the use intended
  • Compatibility with the electricity distribution system, or other source of supply, to which the electrical installation is to be connected

Guarding, labelling, and access only to authorised personnel

The implementation of suitable guarding and labelling to electrical installations and equipment reduces the exposure of employees from any unnecessary interaction with electricity. This also ensures that only authorised personnel (personnel who are trained and competent and aware of the hazards) will be able to gain access.
Constructional requirements (AS/NZS 3000:2000)
Barriers and enclosures shall be firmly secured in place and shall have adequate stability and strength to withstand any appreciable distortion that might be caused by the stresses likely to occur in normal operation, including external influences, so that the required degrees of protection and separation of live parts are maintained.
The removal of barriers, opening of enclosures, or withdrawal of parts of enclosures (doors, casings, lids, covers and the like) shall not be possible unless one of the following conditions apply:
(a)The use of a key or tool is required.
(b)An interlocking device is fitted which requires –
1. Switching off, or automatic disconnection, of the supply to all live parts protected by the barrier or enclosure, which might be touched accidentally during or after the removal, opening or withdrawal process; and
2. The barrier or enclosure to be replaced or closed before the supply can normally be switched on.
(c) An intermediated barrier is provided which –
1. Prevents contact with all live parts when the barrier or enclosure is removed
2. Is permanently in position or arranged so that it is automatically put in position when the barrier or enclosure is removed; and
3. Requires the use of a key or tool to remove such intermediate barrier.

AS/NZS 3000:2000 has specific labelling requirements for different electrical installations, such as main switches and switchboards. Refer the appropriate standard for the specific labelling requirements.

Earth leakage and overload protection
An earth leakage circuit breaker (ELCB) is an electrical safety device, specifically designed to immediately switch the electricity off when “leaking” to earth is detected at a level before it can be harmful to a person using electrical equipment. An ELCB offers a high level of personal protection from electric shock. ELCB’s have another important safety advantage – they reduce the risk of fire by detecting electrical leakage to earth in electrical wiring and accessories. The design or purchase of new equipment must ensure the electrical safety device meets the requirements in table 9.
Table 9: Residual Current Device
Line diagrams

Line diagrams and all other electrical drawings are maintained by the engineering department. They must show all system fault calculations; equipment details; electrical protection discrimination curves; and cable ratings. This makes sure that all relevant information is available for jobs such as upgrades, extensions or re-wiring. Refer to appendix D for Kepmen articlesThe requirements for labelling must be considered when carrying out new work or purchasing new equipment and must ensure that the method of display conforms to owner Standards including consideration of :

  • legends and other information
  • source of supply to each distribution board and circuits supplied by each board
  • switches and circuit breakers for equipment being clearly labelled displaying what equipment is controlled by or is protected by
  • voltage present
  • hazardous areas (dangerous goods, maintenance areas, spray booths)
labelling of electrical equipment to comply with AS3000 and the PUIL standard

Labelling

Labelling of electrical equipment at KPC must be
  • standardised to prevent confusion
  • be readily identifiable and
  • located in a convenient place relative to the intended use

 

Procedures for removing redundant, decommissioned, unfit or unsafe for purpose electrical equipment must be developed and available.
Removing electrical equipment
Electrical equipment maybe removed from service, due to being unfit or unsafe for its intended purpose, it maybe no longer be required as it is not suitable for purpose or is to be made redundant. The safe work procedure that is developed for removing, standing down or destroying the electrical equipment will need to detail the following:
  • Level of competencies to perform the work (electrician, isolation & lockout)
  • Isolation and lockout procedure
  • Any other hazards associated with the work to be identified
  • Affect on other electrical equipment or installations
  • Detail requirements to prevent the electrical equipment from being used again or
  • Detail requirements for destroying electrical equipment
Work Method and Condition Control
There must be processes to ensure:
  • electrical installation work is conducted by competent personnel in accordance with PUIL and KEP/Men regulations, design criteria and safe work procedures
  • equipment is isolated in accordance with the isolation regulations
  • Safe Work Procedures are available and used for all electrical work (i.e. construction, maintenance, decommissioning and demolition)

Competent Personnel

A process will need to be developed to ensure that only competent people perform electrical work in accordance with safe work procedures and the owner Isolation Regulations, this can be achieved by employing qualified electricians and only allowing personnel with the correct KIMPER to perform electrical work at owner.
Certified electricians who have met owner and legal requirements are deemed as competent electrical personnel. These personnel are competent in the following;
  • PUIL,
  • Kep-Menn and
  • AS/NZS 3000
  • interpreting design criteria and
  • complying to safe work procedures

Isolation Regulations

Isolation of electrical circuits is a safety procedure which protects workers and equipment. Isolation means that the power is turned off and isolated at the transmission source so that the equipment cannot be operated. No electrical equipment should be assumed to be de-energised after isolation. Always test prior to touching. Persons required to work in association with electrical equipment must be appropriately trained and competent in test procedures and in the use of testing equipment.
To ensure all isolations are carried out correctly an Isolation Officer ensures that the safe work procedure for the isolation of the particular piece of plant or equipment is applied. The isolation officer also
  • Informs all relevant parties that equipment or plant will be removed from service
  • Ensures that a master series lock is applied when specified within the SWP
  • Conducts testing for zero energy potential when performing the isolation
  • Ensure all personnel have removed their locks and the area is made safe prior to re energizing the plant or equipment
Safe Work Procedures
Safe work procedures must be developed for all frequent electrical work performed such as construction, maintenance, decommissioning and demolition. Safe work procedures provide a standard method of controlling identified risks for each type of work. Safe work procedures should be referred to when performing work associated with electricity. If a safe work procedure does not exist, the supervisor and employees will need to decide if one needs to be developed or if a Job Safety Analysis will be suitable.
There must be processes to ensure:
  • plug – in electrical equipment is not used or operated without a current inspection tag
  • extension leads are to be of heavy duty construction when used outside office areas
  • portable ELUs are trip tested prior to use

To ensure all plug in electrical equipment that is used within the work area has a current inspection tag a register will need to be created. The frequency inspections will be carried out depends on how the equipment is used, such as indoors (computer equipment) and outdoor environments (workshops). Personnel should be made aware of the requirement to only use equipment that has a current inspection tag during training (eg during inductions).

When extension leads are used in outdoor environments they must be designed to withstand a heavy work environment, the extension leads should be highly visible in a colour such as yellow or orange. Extension leads should be protected from heavy and frequent traffic by protective covers or removed from the ground.

All portable earth leakage units must be trip tested prior to use, including the beginning of each shift or job to confirm satisfactory mechanical performance of the tripping mechanism. Any portable earth leakage unit not working will have an out of service tag placed and the equipment can not be used until it is fixed.
Refer to appendix E for a copy of the quarterly electrical tagging colour code Where it is necessary for untrained personnel (e.g. visitors) to enter controlled areas there must be a process for communicating the hazards, and for escorting them with appropriately trained personnel.
When untrained personnel such as visitors need to enter controlled areas including enclosures, control centres and substations a process will need to be in place to ensure they are safe at all times. A brief induction would be necessary to outline
  • the major hazards that may be encountered
  • the control measures that are in place and
  • what to do in the case of an emergency
  • permit requirements (access vicinity excavation)
An authorised person, experienced in the associated hazards of the controlled area will be required to accompany the untrained personnel at all times. Procedures must be in place to restrict access to electrical cables, this will include:
  • where excavation or digging is performed to a depth exceeding 30 cm, outside of the pit area, written permission must be recorded on an excavation permit
  • where machinery and mobile equipment is required to travel or be operated within 10 metres of any overhead power line, written permission must be recorded on an access/vicinity permit
Electrical cables can be positioned above and below the ground, therefore digging below a depth of 30cm and operating machinery near overhead power lines has the potential for personnel to come into contact with electrical cables.
Overhead powerlines are more visible than underground cables but accidental contact is still made in workplaces. Machinery and mobile equipment such as dump trucks, front end loaders, and cranes can easily lift and make contact with overhead powerlines.
To restrict access to electrical cables a safe work procedure must be developed for performing work in the vicinity of any electrical cables. Written permission in the form of an excavation or access/vicinity permit must be included in the safe work procedure.

A permit makes certain that authorisations are obtained and that any standard work instructions relating to the work is clearly communicated and followed prior to the work commencing. An excavation and access/vicinity permit will;

  • provide authorisation to proceed with work
  • provide a method to monitor job progress ensure access to the work site is controlled
  • identify any standard work instructions for the work
  • ensure that special requirements for designated high hazard areas or jobs are satisfied
  • establish job handover and job completion procedures
IF YOU CONTACT EQUIPMENT THAT IS TOUCHING LIVE WIRES YOU MAYBE KILLED.
IF YOU ARE IN A VEHICLE STAY INSIDE AND DON’T TOUCH ANYTHING.
ALWAYS BE AWARE OF WHAT IS GOING ON AROUND YOU.
For an example of application to work in the vicinity of electrical apparatus see appendix F
For an example of electrical access/test permit see appendix G
For an example of an excavation permit see appendix H
For further information on clearing vegetation near power lines see appendix L
Work method and condition controls relating to electrical equipment shall consider:
Kepmen555-Decree of Mines Article 182 (2), 190, 191, 199, 202
Refer to appendix D for Kepmen articles
Maintenance
The electrical installations and equipment maintenance program must include:
  • schedules for conducting maintenance
  • maintaining a register of all electrical equipment used at KPC
  • requirements that maintenance and repair work is undertaken in accordance with manufacturer specifications, AS 3000 and operational experience
  • the use of manufactures or approved compatible parts
  • test equipment is maintained and calibrated to manufacturers specifications
  • the maintaining of line diagrams which show: system fault calculations; equipment details; electrical protection discrimination curves; and cable ratings
  • the recording of all maintenance and repair work conducted
  • reporting of progress against schedule

Implementing a maintenance program

Establishing a maintenance program for all electrical installations and equipment is important; as it ensures that equipment is safe and fit for purpose. Maintenance programs should specify:
  • when servicing is required
  • where servicing is required
  • what components require servicing
  • the type of the servicing required
  • the frequency of servicing
  • who is responsible for repair and maintenance programs and
  • how will defects be corrected
All electrical maintenance and repair work (including replacement parts) must be completed in accordance with AS 3000, and any specific manufacturer’s requirements. The safe work procedure must include any relevant operational experience that is important to the procedure. Line diagrams must be maintained and updated according to changes in the work place.
Maintenance of electrical equipment shall consider:
• Kepmen555-Decree of Mines Article 182 (2), 204 (1)
Refer to appendix D for Kepmen articles
Emergency Controls
Persons certified as electricians must hold first aid qualifications.

First Aid Qualifications

Electricians need to hold first aid qualifications due to the high risk work that they perform. The first aid training must include a cardiopulmonary resuscitation component. Because electricians are not required to administer first aid or CPR on a regular basis, it is recommended that refresher training is carried out a minimum of every 12 months.
All substations, switchrooms, transformers, generating stations shall display signs detailing the procedures for situations involving electric shock and/or fire.

Dealing with Electric Shock and Fire

Signs must be displayed in a position that is easy to locate (not in an obscure corner of the room). The sign will need to be clear and easy to understand in both Indonesian and English. The emergency procedures must include:
  • how to deal with a person who has had an electric shock
  • any special precautions to make sure no one else in injured when attempting to assist the injured person
  • isolation points
  • emergency contact numbers
For an example of how to deal with electric shock see appendix I
All main isolation switches must be identified and accessible.
Main Isolation Switches
The location, arrangement and identification of main isolation switches, must ensure that they can be effectively operated in an emergency. Where multiple supplies are provided, each supply shall be controlled by a main switch or switches on its main switchboard.
Main switches shall be accessible as outlined:
  1. General: Main switches shall be readily accessible and the means of operation the switches must be no more than 2 m above the ground, floor or platform.
  2. Buildings with more than one occupier: The main switch or switches shall be accessible to each occupier
Main switches shall be identified as follows:
Must be marked with ‘MAIN SWITCH’ and shall be readily distinguishable from other switchgear by means of grouping, colouring or other suitable means to provide a prompt in an emergency
For specific information on main Isolation switches see appendix J
Monitoring, Inspections and Audits
Inspections programs for all electrical installations and equipment must include:
  • inspection schedules and frequencies
  • ensuring inspections are carried out by competent electrical workers
  • ensuring that inspections are carried out using only suitably certified and approved test equipment
  • ensuring all plug-in appliances have a colour-coded tag attached indicating the last test date and the licence number of the person who conducted the test
  • ensuring grounding continuity and electrical safety devices are inspected and/or tested
  • ensuring maintenance of records of testing devices
  • recording the results of all inspections on a register
Inspection System
Refer to the electrical installation and equipment register, all items on the register will need to be
inspected such as:
  • wiring systems
  • switch gear
  • control gear
  • appliances
  • electricity distribution system
  • generating systems
Check that the inspection system covers and maintains a record of plug in appliances, colour-coded tags, electrical safety devices and grounding continuity devices inspections.

 

  • Identify inspection requirements (manufacturers specifications and operational experience)
  • Create checklist for each equipment
  • Develop a plan for inspections
  • Establish schedule (computer, record book, etc)
  • Using schedule initiate inspection
  • Plan required inspections into the daily or weekly work schedule, to ensure it is completed by due date.
  • Assign the inspection to a competent electrical worker and ensure appropriate resources are available to carry out the inspections.
  • Note: all electrical and contract personal must hold the owner electrical kimper to perform inspections
  • Perform the inspection using the approved checklist and using certified and approved testing equipment
  • All results need to be recorded on the inspection checklist, including any non conformances.
  • Any non conformances need to be included into the corrective action process.
  • At the completion of the inspection close out the work order, or inspection register and up date records.
As a minimum, electrical equipment must be inspected to the following frequency:
  • portable equipment and heavy duty extension leads – quarterly
  • welding machines – quarterly
  • welding machine accessories – monthly
  • stationary equipment – annually
  • office equipment – biannually
  • earth leakage units – annually
Mandatory Electrical Inspection Frequencies
Table 10: Electrical Inspection Frequencies. (* Requires an initial pre commissioning check)
Monitoring and inspections of electrical equipment shall consider:
  • Kepmen555-Decree of Mines Article 198 (3)
  • Kepmen555-Decree of Mines Article 204 (2)
Refer to appendix D for Kepmen articles
Reporting Assessment and Corrective Actions
Any unsafe electrical installation, equipment, or electrical faults must be reported, assessed and corrected, and will include:
  • a process for reporting to the immediate supervisor
  • a process for the immediate isolation of unsafe equipment or installations
  • recording of corrective actions
Identifying hazards or defects
Hazards or defects maybe identified on electrical installations or equipment when performing inspections, carrying out maintenance or using the electrical equipment. With the understanding that hazards or defects can be identified at various times and locations a system needs to be developed which can ensure these can be reported to the immediate supervisor and assessed accurately.
Reporting the hazard or defect
All persons are required to report any hazard or defect they find, appropriate reports for collecting defect information can be:
  • hazard report
  • maintenance report
  • inspection checklist
If the defect renders the equipment unsafe, it must be appropriately isolated as soon as possible. If the full implications of the defect are unknown, then seek advice from your immediate supervisor. If the supervisor is advised of a defect, they should check that defect has been appropriately tagged out of service and isolated. Then decide on appropriate further action
Assessing and Action
The hazard or defect needs to be assessed by an electrician to decide if the equipment is to be stood down, destroyed or actions taken to correct the problem. A process will need to be developed for standing down or destroying electrical installations or equipment. The process developed for standing down or destroying equipment must:
  • Ensure the equipment is removed from the register if destroyed
  • Prevent the equipment from being used again
  • Detail requirements for destroying equipment.
The process developed for correcting the problem must ensure:
  • It is recorded in maintenance records
  • Follows manufacturers or best practice requirements
  • Is completed by a competent electrician
  • Is certified for use by a competent electrician prior to being used or going back to service
Appendix C – sample line diagram
Appendix D – KEPMen555
Article 181
Persons in Charge and Competent Persons
(1) All electrical work shall be supervised by an electrical expert whose name shall be recorded in the Mine Book.
(2) Electrical work shall only be carried out by a person who possesses electrical knowledge and experience.
Article 182
Safe Working Systems and Equipment
(1) All electrical systems shall be such construction as to prevent any danger arising from its use and shall be maintained in a safe condition.
(2) All activities including maintenance of the system or any work near the system shall be carried out properly to avoid any danger.
(3) Any protective equipment provided to comply with these regulations shall be suitable for its duty, maintained in safe condition and properly used.
Article 183
Electrical equipment shall be protected against :
a. mechanical damage;
b. the effects of weather, natural hazards, temperature and pressure;
c. the effects of moisture, soiling, dust or corrosive conditions, or
d. flammable or explosive substances including dust, gaseous vapours.
Article 184
Insulation and Protection of Conductors
(1) All cunductors in an electrical system which may give rise to danger shall be either:
a. covered with insulating matereal and completely protected or
b. so placed or protected as will prevent any danger.
(2) Where conductors such as resistance banks are difficult to protect individually, any collective fencing shall be of metal, firmly connected to the electrical earthing system and so installed to prevent any contact with live parts.
Article 185
Grounding or Other Precautionary Measures
(1) Precautionary measures shall be taken, either by means of grounding or by any other means. to prevent any hazard from occurring when any open conductive section of the system becomes live as the result of incorrect use of the system or failure of the insulation
(2) If a circuit conductor is connected to earth or to a similar common point, nothing which may give rise to danger by interfering with or disconnection of that common point shall be placed in that conductor.
(3) The main ground connection of the grounding system shall be designed by an Electrical Engineer and shall have an adequate capacity and low resistance. Multiple ground connections shall be interconnected and at equal potential.
Article 186
Connections
Every connection in a system shall be so constructed as to be mechanically and electrically suitable for use and shall not cause any danger in normal conditions.
Article 187
Power Surge Safety Devices
(1) Every electrical installation shall be fitted with efficient and well placed power surge safety devices.
(2) A trailing cable that conducts electricity to mobile equipment shall be fitted with its own safety devices to prevent over loading or short circuiting.
Article 188
Circuit Breakers and Isolating Devices
(1) Appropriate equipment shall be provided to cut off the electrical current to and from any electrical equipment which will ensure the separation of any electrical equipment from any source of electricity, and shall include appropriate methods of identifying circuits.
(2) The requirements of paragraph (1) shall not apply to electrical equipment which is itself a source of electrical energy; however adequate safety measures shall be taken to prevent any danger.
(3) Apart from circuit breaker switches, each electrical appliance shall have local means of isolating all parts of the circuit of that appliance. The high and low voltage sides of a transformer shall be equipped with its own independent means of isolation.
(4) Light bulbs or other small appliances protected by a single fuse not exceeding 10 amps capacity may be collectively protected by one switch.
(5) Any main relay station and any important surface relay station or any relay station that controls underground circuits shall all be interconnected by telephone.
(6) Any branch of an electrical system shall be fitted with isolating switches in order that the branch can be isolated from the main system.
Article 190

Precautionary Measures Prior to Working On Deactivated Electrical Equipment

Prior to working on or working close to any electrical equipment that has been turned off (deactivated), precautionary measures shall be taken such as locking the main switch and following the stipulations laid down by the electrical technician.

Article 191
Working On or Close to Live Power Lines
(1) It is prohibited to work on or close to any bare live power lines, except under special circumstances. Safe working guidelines as created by the Technical Mine Manager shall be followed.
(2) Special safety rules shall be made to carry out work involving electrical welding, shall be created by an electrical technician and approved by the Technical Mine Manager.
Article 192
Working Space, Access and Lighting
(1) Adequate lighting shall be installed in all working spaces and access ways including any area around electrical equipment which is in operation.
(2) All fixed electrical appliances shall be housed in a closed room or suitable houses, unless exception
is granted by the Chief Mine Inspector.
(3) Electrical equipment shall be protected from dripping water and seepage.
(4) Electrical equipment shall be kept clean and dry.
(5) Electrical equipment located in any place exposed to coal dust shall be protected by dust proof covers.
Article 193
Authority to Operate Electrical Equipment
(1) The Technical Mine Manager or the person in charge of the electrical division shall appoint a mine worker to operate and supervise electrical equipment.
(2) The requirements of paragraph (1) shall not apply to any electrical equipment/machinery fitted with automatic safety devices.
Article 194
Installation of Signs on Electrical Equipment
(1) All electrical equipment and devices shall be fitted with information written on a label made from an anti rust metal plate which displays the power, voltage and current, the name of the manufacturer and the serial number.
(2) In the case of electrical motors aside from those specified in paragraph (1), the revolutions per minute shall also be displayed.
Article 195
Circuit Diagrams
(1) A schematic diagram of the circuits of any system operated at a mine with a voltage in excess of 300 volts (250 volts for underground mines) shall be prepared and show every setting of any protective devices.
(2) All such schematic diagrams shall be kept at the mine office and made available to the Mine Inspector at any time.
(3) Copies of schematic diagrams related to the use of switchgear in excess of 300 volts (250 volts for underground mines) shall be displayed at the location of the said master switch.
Article 198
Lightning Safety Devices
(2) When it is deemed necessary safety electrical installations shall be fitted with lightning conductors with an adequate safety capacity.
(3) Lightning conductors shall be inspected every six months or after every severe case of lightning.
(5) The connection of any lightning conductor to ground shall be separated from any mine earthing system by at least 3 meters in air and 15 meters in ground.
Article 199
Safety of Overhead Power Lines
(1) The distance between the ground and any overhead power line shall not be less than:
a. 5.8 meters across public and normal roads or 5.0 meters otherwise for voltages up to 300 volts AC (600 volts DC) and
b. 6 meters across public roads and 5.8 meters otherwise for voltages above 300 volts AC (600 volts DC)
(2) Warning signs or safety barriers shall be installed on overhead power lines which cross transport roads and shall be installed no less than 12 meters from the nearest electrical cable/line in every direction of approach.
(3) It is prohibited to carry out excavation, stockpiling or soil moving work within a distance of 25 meters of any electrical line, trolley wire/buried cable, except where the current in the said power line has been cut off or where the Technical Mine Manager or technician has so permitted and has given instructions on working procedures and safety.
Article 200
Trailing Cables
(1) Trailing cables shall be attached to machines or vehicles in a manner to protect the cable from damage and prevent strain on the conductors.
(2) Surplus trailing cable to vehicles and similar equipment shall be stored neatly on reels installed on the said vehicle or in a cable holder which is capable of protecting the trailing cable from the possibility of mechanical damage.
(3) Where any trailing cables unavoidably cross haul roads, they should either be suspended with the clearance as per the stipulations intended for overhead power lines or protected using metal protectors strong enough to prevent damage caused by passing vehicles.
(4) It is prohibited to leave unattended any vehicles powered by a trailing cable while in operation.
(5) Trailing cables which power vehicles shall contain an integrated ground conductor of adequate capacity.
(6) When handling high voltage trailing cables insulated gloves and shoes shall be worn.
Article 202
Hand Held Equipment
No hand-held tool at a mine shall operate at a voltage in excess of 125 volts DC and 220 volts AC.
Article 203
Warning Signs
(1) Every place containing fixed electrical apparatus other than electrical cables, junction boxes, remote control switches, telephones and signals, shall be provided with clear notices which can be understood by every worker including :
a. directions to restore consciousness after an electrical shock as well as how to safely remove a person from contact with an electrical source.
b. notices containing direction as to the procedures in case of fire and
c. notices prohibiting any person from handling or touching the said electrical equipment except those authorised to do so.
(2) Warning signs shall be installed that indicate any equipment which is operated automatically as well as signs which indicate the location of a telephone or any other means of communication.
(3) Any electrical equipment including junction boxes of cables with a voltage in excess of 1200 volts shall be clearly marked with warning notices displaying the voltage of operation.
(4) A sign prohibiting open flames shall be installed at the door of any charging station.
(5) All switches and circuit breakers for equipment shall be clearly labelled displaying what equipment is controlled by or is protected by the said switches and circuit breakers.
(6) The requirements of paragraph (5) shall not apply to light switches, conveyor control switches as well as any signal control switch on the said equipment.
(7) Warning signs shall be made from durable materials be installed in visible places and be well maintained.
Article 204
Inspections, Testing and Maintenance
(1) The Technical Mine Manager shall ensure that the Engineer in charge specifies and carries out the scheme of inspections, testing and maintenance that will ensure safe operation of all electrical installations.
(2) Electrical installations shall be examined by an expert on a regular basis at intervals not exceeding six months. The findings of the tests shall be recorded in the Electricity Book.
(3) Every change made to any electrical installation shall also be recorded in the said book as well as on the electrical installation blueprints.
Article 205
Duties and Responsibilities
(1) Any person not in charge of tending and supervising electrical appliances, apparatus or wiring, is prohibited from tending or touching the same.
(2) Repair or other operations to low voltage appliances, apparatus or wiring being under current may not be done except by, or under the supervision of, expert personnel applying the necessary safety measures.
Appendix E – quarterly electrical tagging colour code

 

Appendix I – dealing with electric shock
ELECTRIC SHOCK SURVIVAL
EMERGENCY!
Electric shock may stun the victim and stop his or her breathing.
DANGER
Check for your own safety and the safety of the casualty and bystanders.
HIGH VOLTAGE
Wait until the power is turned off.
LOW VOLTAGE
Immediately switch off the power. If this is not practicable, pull or push the casualty clear of the electrical contact using material such as wood, rope, clothing, plastic or rubber. Do not use metal or anything moist.
RESUSCITATION
Immediately send for help without delay.
Check for response, gently shake and loudly shout. If no response then:
ONE

 

• Turn the casualty on his/her side.
• Open mouth and check for any foreign material
• If present, clear the airway using fingers, if necessary.

 

TWO

 

• Place the casualty on his/her back.
• Tilt the head back and raise the chin forward.

 
THREE

 

• Check for breathing, observe chest movement, listen and feel for breathing.
• If no breathing:
• Pinch the casualty’s nose;
• Blow in the casualty’s mouth.

FOUR

 

Give 5 quick breaths followed by 1 every 5 seconds (12 per min), until casualty starts to breath. For children under 2 years of age, place your mouth over the casualty’s mouth and nose and give 20 small puffs per min.

 

FIVE – Circulation – check for pulse

 

Check carotid pulse for 5 seconds

 

• If pulse absent:

• Position hands on lower haft of breast bone.

 

 


SINGLE OPERATOR

Give 15 heart compressions followed by 2 full quick breaths. Depress breast bone 5 cm at the rate of 80 compressions a minute

TWO OPERATORS

Give 5 heart compressions then 1 full quick breath without interrupting the rhythm at the rate of 60 compressions a minute.

 

 

SIX

• When casualty’s pulse and natural breathing returns cease resuscitation and move the casualty into the recovery or coma position.
• Keep a constant watch on the casualty, to ensure they do not cease breathing again, until trained assistants take over.
Check the pulse after the first minute and then every two minutes. When the pulse returns, continue mouth to mouth until breathing returns.
NOTE: This information is provided for guidance only. It is recommended that persons associated with the installation of electrical equipment or repair of electrical installations obtain formal training in current resuscitation methods.
Appendix J – main isolation switches
Main switches
General
The supply to every electrical installation shall be controlled on the main switchboard by a main isolating switch or switches which control the whole of the electrical installation. The number of main switches, their location, arrangement and identification shall be such to allow for their effective operation in an emergency. Where multiple supplies are provided, each supply shall be controlled by a main switch or switches on its main switchboard. Each part of an electrical installation supplying an emergency system in accordance with Clause 7.10 shall be controlled by a main switch or switches, separate from those used to control the remainder of the electrical installation, as required by Clause 7.10.3.
Access
Main switches shall be accessible as follows:
  1. General Main switches shall be readily accessible and the means of operating such switches shall be not more than 2 m above the ground, floor or platform.
  2. Buildings with more than one occupier the main switch or switches shall be accessible to each occupier.
The main switch or switches need not be accessible to any individual occupier who has ready access to a switch or switches which isolate that occupier’s portion of the electrical installation. Such a switch of switches need not control the submains supplying that portion of the electrical installation but shall be mounted on a switchboard located either in the individual electrical installation or within easy access from an entrance to individual premises.
Identification
Main switches shall be identified as follows:
  1. Each main switch shall be marked ‘MAIN SWITCH’ and shall be readily distinguishable from other switchgear by means of grouping, colouring or other suitable means to provide for prompt operation in an emergency.
  2. Where there is more than one switch, each main switch shall be marked to indicate the electrical installation or portion of the electrical installation it controls.
  3. Where the opening of a main switch brings into operation or isolates an alternative supply, a notice shall be provided to indicate the position of the main switch controlling the alternative supply.
  4. Where supply is provided at more than one point in any building, a prominent notice shall be provided at each main switchboard, indicating the presence of other supplies and the location of other main switchboards.
NOTE: Marking requirements for other switches are contained in Clause 2.8.3.4.4.
Remote control
Where provision is made for remote control of the main switch or switches, the following requirements shall
apply:
  1. a. Remote control facilities shall be located and identified in accordance with Clauses 2.8.3.3.2, 2.8.3.3.3 and  2.9.8.2.
  2. Control circuits shall be designed, arranged and installed to prevent inadvertent reclosing of the main switches due to a fault or malfunction in the circuit wiring or auxiliaries.
  3. Every main switch is capable of being closed from a remote position shall be provided with a suitable device to enable it to be locked in the open position.
Appendix L – clearing vegetation near overhead electric lines
Scope
This applies to untrained persons who are cutting and trimming or treating with chemicals or other processes, trees and other foliage near overhead electric lines where
  • the person or something the person is holding or is in contact with, could come within the safe approach distances of exposed live parts; or
  • the work creates risk of damage to electric lines or apparatus. Untrained person, for the electrical part means a person who is not an authorised person or an instructed person for the electrical part.
Examples of untrained persons performing vegetation management near electric lines include:
  • A person trimming a tree
  • A work crew (other than those who are authorised persons for clearing of vegetation around electric lines) performing vegetation clearing or planting or vegetation treatment;
  • A building or road construction contractor performing vegetation clearing or trimming work
Exclusion zones
A person must not work in situations where any part of a crane or plant being operated, or any hand tools or other equipment or load held by any person involved with the operation is at or within the safe approach distances from the electric line.
Requirements for untrained persons
A person should not, at any time, allow any part of their body or anything they are holding or that is attached to their body, or anything they are using, to come within the exclusion zones. A person should not undertake tree trimming or vegetation management where any part of the tree or vegetation to be treated or cut or otherwise worked with is within the exclusion zones. A person should not undertake tree trimming or vegetation management where any part of the tree or vegetation could fall or otherwise be carried within the safe approach distances.
Hazard Identification
Before carrying out any vegetation management work, a person should identify potential hazards of the task. Hazards to be considered include, but are not limited to, the following:
  • Proximity of vegetation and proposed work activity to electric lines, for example:
  • The vegetation involved is located within exclusion zones.
  • The vegetation or part of the vegetation may fall or otherwise be carried into the area within exclusion zones.
  • Carrying out the task would cause a person or anything a person may be holding, or in contact with, to intrude into exclusion zones.
  • Wind causing intermittent encroachment of vegetation into the exclusion zone or wet weather making the situation more dangerous. Operational characteristics of equipment: eg length of boom or the speed of movement of an elevating work platform (EWP). Some examples of operational characteristics that may present a hazard are:
  • Knuckle boom EWPs where convenient placement of the basket can have part of the boom intruding into roadways or other hazardous areas;
  • Cutting equipment such as chain saws, which may “kick back”, causing equipment to move inadvertently; or
  • Site conditions such as weather (wind), terrain, vehicular and other traffic. For example, heavy traffic on an adjacent roadway could prevent safe access to vegetation.
Control measures
Control measures may include, but are not limited to:
  • Electrically isolating lines and apparatus. This would require consultation with the owner of the line.
  • Having the work performed under a different regime eg if the line is the property of an electricity distributor, having the distributor undertake the work.
  • Using equipment designed for the particular risks.
  • Staying outside exclusion zones. Operations should cease where trees or persons are in danger of coming within exclusion zones.
  • Controlling the traffic.

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